Christmas in Croatia
Celebrating Christmas has been a prominent festivity among Croats dating back to the ninth century when Croats accepted Christianity. A noteworthy document from 879 is a letter of Pope John VIII in which he recognized the Croatian state under Prince Branimir. Traditionally a holiday when families get together, for Croats, Christmas is also the time to remember the role the Catholic church has played in the development of Croatian national identity. Faith, along with culture, identity, language and beliefs, preserved Croatia’s national identity during the centuries-long strife when the nation was divided and ruled by different regimes. Crushing that faith as a means of conquest was a tactic different invaders used over the centuries. The most recent attempt occurred in 1991, during the Homeland war, when the Yugoslav army and Serbian paramilitaries demolished over 1200 churches across Croatia in an attempt to erase symbols of Croatian identity and culture. Although valuable cultural heritage was destroyed, they failed to subjugate the Croat nation. Instead, Croats emerged as victors and succeeded in establishing a sovereign and independent Croatia for the first time in a thousand years.
Due to different geographical and historical influences, varying Christmas customs have developed over the centuries, such as variations in carols, sayings, dishes, and decorations. Thus, when traveling through Croatia at Christmas time, you will hear different carols and be offered a wide array of foods, but all Croats will wish you a Merry Christmas in the same way—Sretan Bozic.
Traditional Christmas Foods
Much of the Christmas festivities are centered around the table and food. As it is customary in Catholicism, most Croats do not eat meat on Christmas Eve; instead they eat fish. Traditionally on the Dalmatian coast, this meal has consisted of dried salted cod—bakalar.
For Christmas dinner, the main course may be a roasted suckling pig, turkey or any other meat, depending on the region of Croatia. The central part of the Christmas tradition, however, is the fresh Christmas Eve Bread, or Badnji Kruh, made with honey, nuts and dried fruit. The Christmas Braid is another Christmas bread. The dough is made with nutmeg, raisins and almonds, braided into a wreath and glazed. Many place candles in the center of the bread and use it as a centerpiece for Christmas dinner. The bread is left on the table until the Epiphany (January 6), when it is cut and eaten.
On St. Lucy’s Day (December 13), wheat grains are planted in a round dish or plate and are left to germinate. By Christmas Eve, the sprouted tender green shoots about eight inches high and are tied with a red, white and blue ribbon, known as the Croatian trobojnica. In the Gorski Kotar region of Croatia, a small glass with water and oil is placed in the center of the wheat, on which a floating wick (a dusica—from the word for soul, dusa) is placed. Its glow can be seen through, rather than above, the wheat. The glow represents the soul within each of us.
Decorating the Home
At Christmas, Croatian houses are decorated with greenery: ivy, holly, branches of oak or maple, and fir or evergreen trees. Preparations for Christmas, including decorating the Christmas tree, begin on Christmas Eve, called Badnjak. The word “badnjak” itself comes from the word for a yule log, which is brought in and placed on the hearth. Straw, upon which wishes are made, is brought into the house, and candles are lit for the departed. According to tradition, Croats spend Badnjak awake, burning candles and lighting the yule log.
Many families decorate Christmas trees with the Licitar hearts. This unique Croatian decoration is made of edible materials, although it primarily serves as decoration. The dough, mostly shaped in hearts, is colored red. Colorful designs are added to it, including sayings and little mirrors. The Licitar hearts originated in Sestine, near Zagreb where they continue to be produced, although the tradition has spread across Croatia.
The Christmas table is also set on Badnjak. It is covered with one or several ornamented tablecloths, under which straw is laid. In the spot where the straw is underneath the tablecloth, Christmas bread is positioned on top of the cloth. Pastry plaits decorate the bread, dividing it into four sections. Although the fruits and nuts, which are set on the table vary in each region, they include walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, apples, figs, and other dried fruits. Wine and brandy are set on the table as complimentary drinks.
The Tradition of Gift Giving
Although gifts are given on Christmas day, this is not the main gift-giving day for Croats, who view Christmas day more as a holy day of spiritual celebration. Children in Croatia receive gifts from saints, depending upon where they live. In southern and northeastern Croatia, St. Lucy traditionally brings gifts to children, while in northern and central Croatia, St. Nicholas brings gifts. The celebration of St. Nicholas Day (December 6) as the main gift-giving holiday of the Christmas season stems from the European Catholic church. In North America and Western Europe, the Evangelical church transferred this tradition to Christmas day, transforming St. Nicholas into Santa Claus. Although Croatia has also adopted the tradition of giving gifts on Christmas day, these gifts are said to be brought by the baby Jesus. During Communist rule in Croatia, when religious holidays were not officially acknowledged, presents were given on New Year’s Day by a figure known as Father Frost, although many families privately celebrated the traditional Christian holidays.
According to Croatian tradition, on the eve of St. Nicholas Day, children polish a pair of boots and place them on a window sill for Saint Nicholas to fill; however, what they are filled with depends on how well behaved the child has been. Children are reminded that instead of candy, fruit and gifts, their boots could be filled with switches, which may be put to use!
The Christmas festivities officially end on the Epiphany, when priests visit their parishioners to bless their homes. Families take down Christmas trees and decorations on that day as well.
Here are recipes for two dishes traditionally served in Croatian homes at Christmas time.
2 heads pickled cabbage
1 lb. ground beef
1 lb. smoked ham, chopped
1/4 c. smoked bacon, chopped
2. tbsp. flour
1 c. uncooked rice
2 tsp. paprika
1 onion, chopped
2 tbsp. oil
1 lb. smoked ham hocks or pork ribs
salt and pepper to taste
Fry bacon in its own fat. Add onion and saute five minutes. Remove from heat and drain excess fat. Allow to cool slightly, combine with ground beef, chopped ham, rice, egg, 1 teaspoon paprika, salt and pepper, remove large outer leaves of the cabbage, place filling in each leaf and roll up from center to outer edge. Tuck sides into center to hold roll together.
Cut remaining cabbage into strips. Add another half pound of sauerkraut, if desired. Place half the sauerkraut in the bottom of a large pot. Arrange cabbage rolls over sauerkraut. Add smoked ribs or ham hocks. Cover with remaining sauerkraut. Heat oil and brown flour in it. Add a teaspoon of paprika and water to make a thick roux. Cook for 5 minutes. Pour roux over cabbage rolls. Add water to cover cabbage and simmer over low heat for 1/2 to 2 hours until rice is fully cooked. Do not stir cabbage rolls while cooking. Instead, shake pot occasionally to prevent sticking. Transfer to warm serving dish.
Dalmatian Pot Roast
5 lbs. beef— top round
10 oz. smoked bacon
20. oz onion
8 oz. parsley root
5. oz carrots
4 cloves garlic
10 oz. peeled tomato
10 oz. fresh celery
3 quarts dry red wine
2 tsp. mustard
10 oz. olive oil
bay leaf, rosemary, thyme
salt and pepper to taste
Wash and drain meat. Cut bacon into match-like sticks. Chop onion and garlic. Cut vegetables into small strips. Pierce beef with sharp knife and place garlic into and around meat. Place beef into large pan, cover with wine. Add chopped onion, thyme, bay leaf, rosemary, pepper, and cubed celery to meat. Cover pan and refrigerate for 12 hours.
Heat oil and place beef (only) into pan with oil. Brown meat briskly and remove from pan. Add contents from marinade into oil and fry briskly. Add browned meat, peeled tomatoes, prunes, and remaining items into pan. Mix and cook for 2-3 hours from a higher to lower temperature during cooking time. Remove meat and slice. Strain juice from pan and use as sauce.
- cod fish—bianco and brudetto
- bakalar—bijeli i brudet
- smelts and salted sardines
- girice i slane srdele
- stuffed cabbage
- turkey with Zagorje noodles
- purica s mlincima
- suckling pig
- Dalmatian pot roast
- walnut roll
- poppy seed roll
- assorted Croatian cookies
- dried figs with walnuts
- suhe smokve s orasima
Christmas In Canada
Canada is a multicultural country, where people from different backgrounds have made it their home. Christmas in Canada is a holiday; it is customary for people to exchange gifts, enjoy a special meal together and attend a church service on this day i.e. 25th of December. In provinces of Canada such as Quebec, people celebrate not only on Christmas Day, but also on Christmas Eve. Although the birth of Christ is rejoiced similarly in most parts of the world, the Canadians have incorporated and developed their own customs and traditions. For example, the Christmas Tree, Advent Calendars and the Gingerbread House have had their origin from Germany while the concept of Greeting Cards was introduced by the British. The Irish initiated decoration of lights on their windows, the United States introduced them to the popular Santa Claus and the French gave them the idea of Creche and Carols. Owing to this, a Canadian Christmas is a mixture of various cultures from all over the world.
Christmas Traditions and Customs In Canada
Christians in Canada who follow the Eastern Orthodox tradition celebrated the birth of Jesus on January 7th while the Armenian Apostolic Church marked January 6th as the birth of Jesus.
Families in Canada tell the story of the mythical figure called Santa Claus, who was believed to travel around the world on a sledge powered by a rain-deer. He entered the homes of kids through a chimney to deliver gifts and candy into Christmas stockings. During this time, people of the house exchange gifts which could range from toys, games, chocolates, music and clothes to luxury items such as watches and wine.
Celebrations In Different Provinces
In some provinces of Canada, Eskimos celebrate Sinck Tuck which is a winter festival accompanied by dance. In Nova Scotia, ‘masked mummers’ are known to visit the neighbourhood with loud ringing bells and sought candy and other gifts. Then, the host would try to identify the mummer, failing which the loud ringing sounds continue! On guessing right, the mummer would be revealed. In the same province, people sing carols and songs on the Christmas morning. In Quebec, creches are displayed as part of Christmas celebrations. In Labrador City in Newfoundland, houses are decorated with lights and gardens will have ice sculptures.
A traditional Christmas Day in Canada starts with ham, eggs or pancakes. Lunch typically would comprise of stuffed or dressed roast turkey, potatoes and cranberry sauce, savoury snacks such as oranges or mandarin, nuts and butter tarts and finally, the Christmas pudding or plum. Numerous sweets such as barley candy and chicken bones (creamy milk chocolate once melted) are served.
A few families in Canada like to conduct cookie baking parties. Here, a cake is baked and cookies are exchanged. At the end of the party, each guest goes home stomach- full!
La Fete du Roi
Christmas season ends on January 6th with people in Quebec celebrating an event called “La Fete du Roi. During this time, a cake is baked and a bean is placed in the middle of it. The person who is lucky enough to discover the bean is the King or Queen, as per the tradition.
Canada celebrates Christmas with a spirit of friendship, love, brotherhood and secularity. This is the reason why it is called a community festival rather than a religious one.